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Other Languages

WEP Other languages

 

  1. Native languages
  2. Immigrant Languages
  3. References and related publications

 

1. Native languages

Languages belong to different language families, and in Wisconsin, three Native American language families are represented. Potawatomi, Menominee, the original language of the Stockbridge-Munsee, and Ojibwe (spoken by the Red Cliff, St. Croix, Bad River, Lac Courte Oreilles, Lac du Flambeau, and Sokaogan bands of the Lake Superior Chippewa) are all languages in the Algonquian family. The Oneida language is a member of the Iroquoian language family (along with languages like Mohawk and Cherokee), and the Ho-Chunk language is part of the Siouan language family (which also includes the Lakota, Dakota, and Assiniboine languages).

Menominee County/Nation

Kemāēnikanenaw

mōnahekan

‘Our town farm’ = community garden

[Photo and translation, Monica Macaulay, 2015]

 

The following map shows the federally recognized tribes of Wisconsin, and you’ll see that these different native languages of Wisconsin are spoken in different areas of the state:

 Tribal Areas in Wisconsin

Tribal areas in Wisconsin. Boundaries have been generalized from geographic data available as 2010 Tiger/Line shape files from the U.S. Census Bureau. Purnell, Thomas. WISCONSIN TALK. © 2013 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Reprinted by permission of The University of Wisconsin Press.

All of Wisconsin’s native languages are seriously endangered, yet every tribe has language preservation and revitalization projects in progress.

 Native American population in 2010

Native American population in 2010, by county. Data from 2010 U.S. census, table DP-1, “Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics.” Purnell, Thomas. WISCONSIN TALK. © 2013 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Reprinted by permission of The University of Wisconsin Press. 

Why are these languages in danger of being not spoken?

The colonization of North America, especially by the Spanish, French, and British, set in motion cultural and social changes that eventually caused shift to these language by Native American populations who survived the violence and diseases that came with colonization.

Later, government policies often forced a shift away from Native American languages. Boarding schools where Native American children were sent played a huge role in the repression of languages and cultures. These schools not only caused harm to individuals and communities, but impact on the survival of Native American languages is incalculable, as children who attended these schools missed out on an entire childhood of community language and culture, with many deciding, when it was time to raise their own children, to speak English rather than their native languages. Wisconsin had its share of government boarding schools for Native American children, as shown in the following map:

Indian schools and enrollments in Wisconsin, 1899 

Indian schools and enrollments in Wisconsin in 1899. Data from Statistics of Indian Tribes, Indian Agencies, and Indian Schools of Every Character (1899). Purnell, Thomas. WISCONSIN TALK. © 2013 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Reprinted by permission of The University of Wisconsin Press.

Currently, various Native American languages of Wisconsin are taught in day care, schools, colleges, and special programs. Most tribes have tribal bodies that oversee revitalization efforts. And there is a growing public presence of Wisconsin's native languages, as exemplified by these signs in English, Spanish, Hmong, and Ho-Chunk (from the resale shop at St. Vincent de Paul's in Madison):

sign from St. Vincent de Paul thrift shop 

Photo courtesy of Mateja Schuck.

For more information, consult:

See Chapter 1 in Wisconsin Talk for more information about this topic.

2. Immigrant languages

Immigrants to Wisconsin have brought many different languages and dialects. To understand the potential effects of these immigrant languages on the development of contemporary varieties of Wisconsin English, we need to study the social situation and language use patterns of these immigrant groups and their descendants.

 

Vast numbers of Wisconsinites have lived and still live their lives in languages other than English. Today, most of the older immigrant languages (such as Polish, German, Dutch, Czech) are less frequently spoken, while Native languages of Wisconsin (such as Ho-Chunk or Ojibwe) are the focus of intense revitalization efforts (see above), and new languages have only recently arrived (such as Hmong, Spanish, Somali).

Consider the changes to Wisconsin’s “ethnic landscape” by comparing the famous Hill Map (and note that it’s problematic – the map doesn’t give the distribution of Wisconsin’s Native communities at the time), created by University of Wisconsin-Madison sociologist George W. Hill in 1941:

 Hill Map of ethnic landscape of Wisconsin

Courtesy of the Wisconsin Historical Society, image ID WHi-62099

When Hill made that map, many of those community languages were widely known and used. Now consider the percentage of people who reported in 2000 to the census that they spoke some language other than English at home:

2000 census of speakers of non-English languages

Data from the American Community Survey 2006-10, five-year estimates, table DP02, “Selected Social Characteristics in the United States.” Purnell, Thomas. WISCONSIN TALK. © 2013 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Reprinted by permission of The University of Wisconsin Press.

 

Different languages are spoken in different parts of the state, as seen on the following maps which show reported home language use of German or Norwegian ("Other Indo-European Languages"); Spanish; Hmong, Japanese or Thai ("Asian and Pacific Islander Languages"); and a Native American language or Finnish ("Other Languages"), as of the 2000 census.

 Spanish and other Indo European language speakersAsian /Pacific and other language speakers 

Data from the American Community Survey 2006-10, five-year estimates, table DP02, “Selected Social Characteristics in the United States.” Purnell, Thomas. WISCONSIN TALK. © 2013 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Reprinted by permission of The University of Wisconsin Press.

 

Let’s zoom in to just the southeastern corner of the state and look at the size of the non-English-speaking population as well as the distribution of which languages are represented within that population.

 Other language speakers in S.E. Wisconsin 2006-2010

Data from the American Community Survey, 2006-10, five-year estimates, table DP02, "Selected Social Characteristics in the United States." Purnell, Thomas. WISCONSIN TALK. © 2013 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Reprinted by permission of The University of Wisconsin Press.

Spanish speakers are heavily represented in these mostly urban counties, while “other Indo-European" languages and some newer ones make up a considerable part of the total, especially in suburban Waukesha County. Speakers of Asian and Pacific Islander languages are often associated with western and central Wisconsin, but you can see here that many speakers of these languages live in the southeast as well.


Additional maps

Languages Spoken at Home in Wisconsin, 2000 
This paper dot density map shows the distribution of selected languages spoken at home in Wisconsin according to the 2000 US Census and reflects the state's linguistic diversity. 

Distribution of Selected Languages Spoken at Home in Southwestern and Northern Wisconsin, 2000 
Focusing on different regions of the state, these maps show the distribution of German, Hmong, Native American, Scandinavian, and Spanish languages spoken at home in Southwestern and Northern Wisconsin, using data from the 2000 US Census. 

Distribution of Selected Languages Spoken at Home in Southeastern Wisconsin, 2000 
These maps show the distribution of German, Hmong, Native American, Scandinavian, and Spanish languages spoken at home in Southeastern Wisconsin. 

Change in Language Spoken at Home, Marathon and Portage Counties, Wisconsin 
This paper map shows changes in the linguistic landscapes of two Wisconsin communities from 1990 to 2000.

Older Immigrant Languages

First, consider older immigrant varieties of English, such as the Cornish English dialects from Cornwall, England, that were spoken early on in southwest Wisconsin. This corner of Wisconsin saw a wave of Cornish immigrants between 1830 and 1850, mostly miners interested in the lead deposits to be found there. The following map shows the two towns most of the immigrants came from, Redruth and Camborne, as well as three features of speech characteristic of the Cornish English dialect: thee (or ’ee or ye) for you, loss of initial h- resulting in ’ouse instead of house, and the past tense form catched instead of the irregular form caught.

 Origins of settlers of Mineral Point 

Origins of settlers of Mineral Point, Wisconsin, relative to regional language features in Cornwall and southwest England, as discussed in Upton and Widdowson (1996). Purnell, Thomas. WISCONSIN TALK. © 2013 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Reprinted by permission of The University of Wisconsin Press.

Cornish dialect speakers were not the first English speakers in southwest Wisconsin – there were earlier settlers from other parts of Britain and from elsewhere in the United States, all bringing various dialects of English with them. However, the Cornish were the first English-speaking group to live in this area permanently in relatively large numbers, and the Cornish dialect was thus more influential on the speech of the area than less well-represented dialects.

The Cornish immigrants were part of the first big population boom that Wisconsin experienced, with the population of Wisconsin growing by 2,514% between 1836 and 1850. As of 1850, approximately one-third of Wisconsin’s population was foreign born, with immigrants coming primarily from German speaking countries, Scandinavian countries and Great Britain and Ireland (Nesbit 1989, Ostergren 1997).

Members of these ‘older immigrant’ groups were still arriving to the state in 1880, when a wave of ‘new immigrants’ began, drawing more on immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, including Italians, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, and Russians. As shown in the following map, the majority of the state had a foreign-born population of over 15% as of 1900:

 Foreign born population in 1900 census 

Data from the 1900 U.S. census. On this map and others that use county data from 1900, Rusk and Menominee counties had not been established. Rusk was founded in 1901. Menominee, established in 1959, appears in many early maps as the Menominee Reservation. Purnell, Thomas. WISCONSIN TALK. © 2013 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Reprinted by permission of The University of Wisconsin Press.

Many Norwegians who came to Wisconsin took up residence in the western part of the state, as shown by the map below of the distribution of Norwegian immigrants in Wisconsin in 1900:

Norwegian immigrants in 1900 census

Percentage born in Norway, 1900, by county. Data from the 1900 U.S. census. Purnell, Thomas. WISCONSIN TALK. © 2013 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Reprinted by permission of The University of Wisconsin Press.

Swedish welcome mat 

A Swedish welcome mat sold in the Upper Midwest

[Photo, Monica Macaulay, 2015]

 German-speaking immigrants settled mainly in the eastern and north-central portions of the state, as shown by this animated map displaying patterns of German immigration to Wisconsin from 1870 to 1950, and the following map:

German speaking immigrants in 1900 

Percentage born in Germany, 1900, by county. Data from the 1900 U.S. census. Purnell, Thomas. WISCONSIN TALK. © 2013 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Reprinted by permission of The University of Wisconsin Press.

Religious institutions often played a role in maintaining older immigrant language in the community. Education was often provided by these institutions, with many parochial schools offering instruction in the immigrant language. Immigrant populations also established their own press in their own languages, which allowed them to keep up with events in the US and at home in their native tongues.

 foreign-language newspapers in 1900

Locations of select foreign-language weekly newspapers in 1900. Data from Guide to Wisconsin Newspapers, 1833-1957, compiled by Donald E. Oehlerts. The data include only newspapers extant in 1900. Purnell, Thomas. WISCONSIN TALK. © 2013 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Reprinted by permission of The University of Wisconsin Press.

In the early 1900s, these older immigrant languages were still being spoken by immigrants and their descendants, with communities showing a mixture of households that were monolingual in an immigrant language, monolingual in English, or bilingual in English and an immigrant language, as shown by the following map based on a 1910 plat map of Hustisford Township (Dodge County, Wisconsin) from the Wisconsin Historical Society:

 Language Classification by Household 1910

Data collected by Miranda Wilkerson. Map produced by Mark Livengood.

To see how household language use changed in Hustisford from 1910 to 1920, refer to this interactive map (produced by Mark Livengood).

In the mid-1900s, many families continued speaking German at home, even as schools, churches and businesses conducted business more frequently in English. Several parochial schools in rural Wisconsin continued to teach at least part of their curriculum, summer schools or Sunday school in German, in some cases until the 1940s. And the Lutheran churches of Lebanon, Wisconsin continued German-language services up until the 1960s and 1970s (Lucht 2007). 

Today we still find these older immigrant communities playing an active role in certain community events – there are still some special religious services conducted in whole or in part in the original immigrant language. For example, as of 2011, there were three German-language Christmas services in eastern Wisconsin (one at Trinity Lutheran Church in the city of Sheboygan, one at Zion Evangelical Lutheran Church in Kiel, and one at St. Mark’s Evangelical Church in Watertown). There are even a few immigrant language newspapers still in circulation today, such as the Gwiazda Polarna (Northern Star), a Polish-language biweekly published in Stevens Point.

The future of these languages as family languages is, however, uncertain, as children have stopped learning these languages as home languages and begin learning them instead as “foreign languages” as adults. Consider the case of German, where as of 2000, 42.6% of Wisconsinites claimed “German” as their primary ancestry, but less than 1% reported speaking German at home.

 Speakers of older immigrant languages in WI 2006-08

Number of speakers of select older immigrant languages in Wisconsin, 2006-8. Data from the American Community Survey 2006-8. Purnell, Thomas. WISCONSIN TALK. © 2013 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Reprinted by permission of The University of Wisconsin Press. 

Related websites

Check out the National Folklore Archiving Initiative, which has information about recordings and artifacts of speakers of older immigrant languages in Wisconsin (e.g., German, Norwegian, Swedish). 

The NorDiaSyn database and corpus for Norwegian dialect syntax includes recordings of European AND Upper Midwestern Norwegian varieties

And the project American Languages: Our Nation's Many Voices Online features recordings of English and German dialects from the Upper Midwest (and elsewhere in the USA).

Refer to Chapters 2, 3 and 4 in Wisconsin Talk for more information about this topic.

Newer immigrant languages

This section will focus on research about Hmong and Spanish speakers in Wisconsin, but it should be noted that in recent years, there has also been an influx of speakers of indigenous Central American languages (like Mixtec and Yucatec) who learned Spanish as a second or third language, as well as speakers of Pennsylvania Dutch in Old Order Amish and Old Order Mennonite communities.

Hmong speakers in Wisconsin

Hmong immigrants came to the United States via refugee camps in Thailand in the aftermath of war in Southeast Asia. The language the refugees brought with them is called Hmong and has several varieties (e.g., White Hmong and Green Hmong). Speakers of Hmong live in various areas of Wisconsin, often in large, multigenerational households.

Percentage of Hmong speakers in 2000 by county

Percentage of people speaking Hmong at home in 2000, by county subdivision. Data from the 2000 U.S. census, table QTP16, “Language spoken at Home,” which is sample data. Percentages are the number of speakers per the total population aged five years and older. Purnell, Thomas. WISCONSIN TALK. © 2013 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Reprinted by permission of The University of Wisconsin Press.

The Hmong population in the United States as a whole is a young population, with a median age of 19.1 years, compared with a much older median age of 36.4 years for the general population. The map below displays the age distribution of Hmong speakers in various counties in Wisconsin, with darker shading in the circles suggesting the percentage of Hmong speakers eighteen and older, and lighter shading indicating the percentage of speakers aged five to seventeen.

 No. of Hmong speakers by county in 2000

Number of people speaking Hmong at home in 2000, by county. Data from the 2000 U.S. census, table PCT010, “Age of Language Spoken at Home for the Populations 5 Years and Over.” The absence of a symbol for a particular county indicates that no Hmong speakers were reported there in 2000. Purnell, Thomas. WISCONSIN TALK. © 2013 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Reprinted by permission of The University of Wisconsin Press.

Researchers have examined reports from elderly and younger Hmong speakers on their knowledge of English and Hmong, with results suggesting that younger Hmong speakers are more likely than elders to know and use English, and less likely to consider themselves as native speakers of Hmong (Burt 2010). Evidence also suggests that the more bilingual lifestyle of younger Hmong speakers may be influencing how they use English and Hmong, with potential consequences for the maintenance of the language as young speakers may feel more comfortable conversing in English or as if their Hmong is disapproved of by elderly Hmong speakers.

While education in Hmong is hard to come by for younger children, there are several public universities in Wisconsin that have developed courses to support Hmong language and culture, including the University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh, the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, and the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Spanish speakers

Similar to the Hmong population in Wisconsin, the median age of Wisconsin Hispanics is young (25 years of age) compared to the national average. The Hispanic population has been growing in every county in Wisconsin, with some counties experiencing an over 1,000% increase in Hispanics between 1990-2010:

 Percentage Growth of Hispanic population 1990-2010

Percentage change in Hispanic population, 1990-2010, by county. Data computed from statistics from the 1900 and 2010 U.S. censuses for Hispanics of “any race.” Purnell, Thomas. WISCONSIN TALK. © 2013 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Reprinted by permission of The University of Wisconsin Press.

Despite the size and steady growth of these communities, Hispanics still represent a vulnerable sector of the state’s population, with 23% of Hispanics seventeen and younger living in poverty and 18% of those between eighteen and sixty-four living in poverty. Hispanic children tend also to be at an educational disadvantage, particularly relative to their non-Hispanic white peers.

Individuals who identify as being “Hispanic” include monolingual English speakers, monolingual Spanish speakers, and bilingual/multilingual individuals whose relative proficiency in Spanish, English and, in some cases, Latin American indigenous languages varies widely. In 2000, 33% of Hispanics reported speaking only English at home, while 66% reported speaking Spanish and 1% reported speaking a language other than English or Spanish. While the percentage of Hispanics who speak Spanish at home is high, there is a tendency for almost or over half of the Hispanics in a county to report the ability to speak English “very well.”

The graph below displays this, with lighter shading suggesting the percentage of Spanish speakers who reported speaking English “very well” and darker shading suggesting the percentage of Spanish speakers who reported speaking English less than “very well” as a percentage of the total number of Spanish speakers of that particular county.

 No. of Spanish speakers 2006-2010

Number of Spanish speakers, 2006-2010, by county. Data from the American Community Survey 2006-7, five-year estimates, table DP02, “Selected Social Characteristics in the United States.” Purnell, Thomas. WISCONSIN TALK. © 2013 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Reprinted by permission of The University of Wisconsin Press.

Census estimates from 2008 indicate that 66% of Wisconsin’s Hispanics were U.S.-born descendants of first-generation immigrants. There has also been a decrease in the number of immigrants that make up the state’s Hispanic population, indicating that it’s up to the U.S.-born Hispanics to continue using Spanish with their children so that younger generations can take advantage of the cultural, economic, linguistic, and cognitive advantages of bilingualism; family, community, and institutional support, as well as advocacy for additive bilingualism and bilingual education programs would also help ensure that Hispanic youth can reach their potential as highly proficient users of both Spanish and English.

Refer to Chapters 8 and 9 in Wisconsin Talk for more information about this topic.

3. References and related publications:

Bialystok, Ellen. 2007. “Cognitive Effects of Bilingualism: How Linguistic Experience Leads to Cognitive Change.” International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 10 (3): 210–23. 

Bialystok, Ellen, Fergus I. M. Craik, Raymond Klein, and Mythili Viswanathan. 2004. “Bilingualism, Aging, and Cognitive Control: Evidence from the Simon Task.” Psychology and Aging 19 (2): 290–303. 

Bialystok, Ellen, Fergus I. M. Craik, and A. C. Ruocco. 2006. “Dual-Modality Monitoring in a Classification Task: The Effects of Bilingualism and Ageing.” Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 59 (11): 1968–83. 

Burt, Susan Meredith. 2009. “Contact Pragmatics: Requests in Wisconsin Hmong.” Journal of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society 1:63–76.

Burt, Susan Meredith. 2010. The Hmong Language in Wisconsin: Language Shift and Pragmatic Change. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen.

Burt, Susan Meredith. 2013. Hmong in Wisconsin. In Wisconsin Talk: Linguistic Diversity in the Badger State, eds. Thomas Purnell, Eric Raimy and Joseph Salmons, pp. 111-122. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press.

Burt, Susan Meredith, and Hua Yang. 2005. “Growing Up Shifting: Immigrant Children, Their Families, and the Schools.” In Language in the Schools: Integrating Linguistic Knowledge into K-12 Teaching, edited by Kristin Denham and Anne Lobeck, 29–40. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Caldwell, Alan and Monica Macaulay. 2000. The Current Status of the Menominee Language. Proceedings of the 31st Conference on Algonquian Languages 31: 18–29.

Cummins, James. 2001. “Linguistic Interdependence and the Educational Development of Bilingual Children.” In The New Immigrant and Language, vol. 6 of Interdisciplinary Perspectives on the New Immigration, edited by Marcelo M. Suárez-Orozco, Carola Suárez-Orozco, and Desirée Qin-Hilliard, 72–101. New York: Routledge.

Cummins, James, and Metro Gulustan. 1974. “Some Effects of Bilingualism on Cognitive Functioning.” In Bilingualism, Biculturalism and Education, edited by Stephen T. Carey, 129–36. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press. 

Fishman, Joshua A. 1991. Reversing Language Shift. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. 

Fishman, Joshua, ed. 2001. Can Threatened Languages Be Saved? Buffalo, NY: Multilingual Matters. 

Fishman, Joshua. 2006. “Three Hundred-Plus Years of Heritage Language Education in the United States.” In Developing Minority Language Resources: The Case of Spanish in California, edited by Guadalupe Valdés, Joshua A. Fishman, Rebecca Chávez, and William Pérez, 12–23. Buffalo, NY: Multilingual Matters. 

Grosjean, François. 1998. “Studying Bilinguals: Methodological and Conceptual Issues.” Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 1 (2): 131–49. 

Hein, Jeremy. 2006. Ethnic Origins: The Adaptation of Cambodian and Hmong Refugees in Four American Cities. New York: American Sociological Association. 

Hillmer, Paul. 2009. A People’s History of the Hmong. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press. 

Hinton, Leanne. 2001. The Master-Apprentice Language Learning Program. In The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice, eds. Leanne Hinton and Ken Hale, pp. 217–226. New York: Academic Press.

Hinton, Leanne.  2013.  Bringing Our Languages Home: Language Revitalization for Families.  Berkeley, CA:  Heyday Books.

Koltyk, Jo Ann. 1997. New Pioneers in the Heartland: Hmong Life in Wisconsin. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 

Lo, Fungchatou T. 2001. The Promised Land: Socioeconomic Reality of the Hmong People in Urban America (1976–2000). Bristol, IN: Wyndham Hall Press. 

Lucht, Felecia. 2007. “Language Variation in a German-American Community: A Diachronic Study of the Spectrum of Language Use in Lebanon, Wisconsin.” PhD diss., University of Wisconsin–Madison. 

Lucht, Felecia, Benjamin Frey, and Joseph Salmons. 2011. “A Tale of Three Cities: Urban-Rural Asymmetries in Language Shift?” Journal of Germanic Linguistics 23 (4): 347–74. 

Lucht, Felecia. 2013. Older immigrant languages. In Wisconsin Talk: Linguistic Diversity in the Badger State, eds. Thomas Purnell, Eric Raimy and Joseph Salmons, pp. 26-36. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press.

Ostergren, Robert C. 1997. “The Euro-American Settlement of Wisconsin, 1830–1920.” In Wisconsin Land and Life, edited by Robert C. Ostergren and Thomas R. Vale, 137–62. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. 

Petty, Antje. 2013. Immigrant languages and education. In Wisconsin Talk: Linguistic Diversity in the Badger State, eds. Thomas Purnell, Eric Raimy and Joseph Salmons, pp. 37-57. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press.

Pfeifer, Mark E. 2006. Southeast Asian American Data 2006 American Community Survey

Potowski, Kim, and Richard Cameron, eds. 2007. Spanish in Contact: Policy, Social and Linguistic Inquiries. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 

Ratliff, Martha. 1997. “Hmong-Mien Demonstratives and Pattern Persistence.” Mon-Khmer Studies 27:317–28. 

Ratliff, Martha. 2010. Hmong-Mien Language History. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. 

Salmons, Joseph. 2002. The shift from German to English, World War I and the German-language press in Wisconsin. In Menschen zwischen zwei Welten: Auswanderung, Ansiedlung, Akkulturation, eds. Walter G. Rödel and Helmut Schmahl, pp. 178-193. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. 

Smith, Andrea. 2007. Soul Wound: The Legacy of Native American SchoolsAmnesty International Magazine, March 26.

Stafford, Catherine. 2013. Spanish in Wisconsin. In Wisconsin Talk: Linguistic Diversity in the Badger State, eds. Thomas Purnell, Eric Raimy and Joseph Salmons, pp. 123-141. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press. 

Upton, Clive, and J. D. A. Widdowson. 1996. An Atlas of English Dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Nesbit, Robert C. 1989. Wisconsin: A History. 2nd ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. 

Valdés, Guadalupe. 2005. “Bilingualism, Heritage Language Learners, and SLA Research: Opportunities Lost or Seized?” Modern Language Journal 89 (3):410–26. 

Wilkerson, Miranda and Joseph Salmons. 2008. "'Good Old Immigrants of Yesteryear' Who Didn't Learn English: Germans in Wisconsin." American Speech 83.3. 

Wilkerson, Miranda and Joseph Salmons. 2012. Linguistic Marginalities: Becoming American without Learning English. Journal of Transnational American Studies 4.2.