Click on the topics to the right to read about aspects of Wisconsin English we are investigating.

Listed below are some additional articles we recommend (some by members of our group, some by other well-known linguists) if you are looking for more in-depth information.

General Work, Dialectology, Sociolinguistics

Cassidy, Frederic G. 1948. "On Collecting American Dialect." American Speech 23.193.

Larmouth, Donald, and Marjorie Remsing. 1993. "'Kentuck'" English in Wisconsin's Cutover Region." "Heartland" English: Variation and Transition in the American Midwest. Timothy C. Frazer, ed. Tuscaloosa: Univ of Alabama Press. 215-228.

Remlinger, Kathryn A. 2007. "The Intertwined Histories of Identity and Dialect in Michigan's Copper Country." In Alison K. Hoagland, Erik Nordberg, & Terry Reynolds, eds. New perspectives on Michigan's Copper Country.Houghton, MI: Quincy Mine Hoist Association. 62-84.

Remlinger, Kathryn A. 2007. "Newfies, Cajuns, Hillbillies, and Yoopers: Gendered Media Representations of Regional Dialects." Linguistica Atlantica, Journal of the Atlantic Provinces Linguistic Association, 26-27: 96-100.

Remlinger, Kathryn A. 2006. "What It Means to Be a Yooper: Identity, Language Attitudes and Variation in Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula. In Markku Filppula, Marjatta Palander, Juhani Klemola and Esa Penttilä, eds, Topics in Dialectal Variation. Joensuu, Finland: University of Joensuu Press. 125-144.

Remlinger, Kathryn A., Luanne von Schneidemesser, and Joseph Salmons. Forthcoming. "Revised Perceptions: Changing Dialect Awareness in Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula." American Speech (Special issue on "Enregistration.")

Wisconsin Words

Cassidy, Frederic G. and Joan Houston Hall, eds. 1985–. The Dictionary of American Regional English. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
[The source for American regional vocabulary. An index to vol. 3 gives many references to Wisconsin.]

Schneidemesser, Luanne von. 1993. "More German Loanwords from the Dictionary of American Regional English." The German Language in America, 1683-1991. Joseph Salmons, ed. Madison: Max Kade Institute. 225-249.

Schneidemesser, Luanne von. 2002. "Settlement History in the United States as Reflected in DARE: The Example of German." American Speech 77.398-418.

Schneidemesser, Luanne von. 2007. "The Dialect Vocabulary of the Midwest." The American Midwest: An Interpretive Encyclopedia. Andrew Cayton, Richard Sisson, and Christian Zacher, eds. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 289-291.
[This encyclopedia contains a number of other excellent short articles on language in the Midwest, broadly construed.]

Schneidemesser, Luanne von and Julie Plier. In preparation. Wisconsin Words.

Wisconsin Sounds

Jacewicz, Ewa, Joseph Salmons, and Robert Allen Fox. 2007. "Vowel Duration across Three American Dialects." American Speech 82.367-385.

Jacewicz, Ewa, Robert Allen Fox, and Joseph Salmons. Forthcoming. "Articulation Rate across Dialect, Gender and Age." Language Variation and Change.

Purnell, Thomas. 2005. "The Secret Life of Vowels: Diphthongization, Mergers and Shifts." Paper presented to the Midwest meeting of the American Dialect Society. Milwaukee, November.

Purnell, Thomas, Joseph Salmons, Dilara Tepeli and Jennifer Mercer. 2005. "Structured Heterogeneity and Change in Laryngeal Phonetics: Upper Midwestern Final Obstruents." Journal of English Linguistics 33:4.307-338.

Purnell, Thomas. In review. "Acoustic Consequences of Spectral Power Adjustments in Two Dialects of American English."

Purnell, Thomas. To appear. "Phonetic Detail in the Perception of Ethnic Varieties of US English."

Language Contact and Wisconsin English

Benjamin, Steven M. and Luanne von Schneidemesser. 1979. "German Loanwords in American English, a Bibliography of Studies, 1872- 1978." American Speech 54.210-215.

Howell, Robert B. 1993. "German Immigration and the Development of Regional Variants of American English: Using Contact Theory to Discover Our Roots." The German Language in America, 1683-1991. Joseph Salmons, ed. Madison: Max Kade Institute. 190-212.
[Reliable survey of possible German influences on English, with lots of Wisconsin data.]

Larmouth, Donald. 1990. "Belgian English in Wisconsin's Door County Peninsula." Kansas Quarterly 22.4.135-41.

Purnell, Thomas, Dilara Tepeli, and Joseph Salmons. 2005. "German Substrate Effects in Wisconsin English: Evidence for Final Fortition." American Speech 80.135-164.

Salmons, Joseph, Dilara Tepeli, and Thomas Purnell. 2006. "Deutsche Spuren im amerikanischen Englischen." Deutsche Sprachinseln heute. Nina Berend and Elisabeth Knipf-Komlósi, eds. Frankfurt a.M.: Peter Lang.
[A general overview of possible German influences on Wisconsin English.]

Salmons, Joseph and Thomas Purnell. Forthcoming. "Language Contact and the Development of American English." The Handbook of Language Contact. Raymond Hickey, ed. Oxford: Blackwell.

Tepeli, Dilara, Joseph Salmons, and Thomas Purnell. Forthcoming. "Was bleibt bestehen? Der deutsche Einfluß auf das Amerikanische." Die deutsche Präsenz in den USA / The German presence in the U.S.A. Josef Raab and Jan Wirrer, eds. Münster: LIT Verlag. 745-763.

Wilkerson, Miranda and Joseph Salmons. 2008. "'Good Old Immigrants of Yesteryear' Who Didn't Learn English: Germans in Wisconsin." American Speech 83.3.

Wisconsin English Grammar

McDavid, Virginia. 1990. "Irregular Verb Forms in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota: Educational Attainment and Gender Differences." Kansas Quarterly 22.4.31-43.