American Languages Our Nations Many Voices Online
English Dialects | German Dialects | Links | Searchable Databases | Home

German-American Language Myths: Ich bin ein Berliner

Hear JFK's Speech
The second urban legend lacks the political gravitas of the story just told, but is nonetheless interesting for its persistence, especially for didactic purposes in German language classes. One of the many differences between the grammars of German and English pertains to the use of articles, especially indefinite articles (a[n], ein) that come right before words denoting professions and geographic origins. While in English one would say I am a student and I am an American, the German equivalents are Ich bin Student and Ich bin Amerikaner, without the ein. It is common among learners of German to say Ich bin ein Student (Amerikaner).

Kennedy Berlin Visit Newspaper
German-language American newspaper report on JFK’s 1963 visit

Now turn the clock back, not to 1795, but to June 26, 1963, and President Kennedy’s legendary visit to Berlin at the height of the Cold War. One of the president’s most famous lines of all time was the one he uttered twice, at the beginning and end of his stirring speech, to express solidarity with the citizens of the divided city, namely Ich bin ein Berliner. Ever since, German teachers in this country have quoted this line as an example of what their students should NOT do. Pointing out that one of the regional words in German for “jelly-filled doughnut” is Berliner, people have assumed that President Kennedy outed himself as a pastry to hundreds of thousands of amused Germans.

Source: “‘Ich bin ein Berliner’: A History and a Linguistic Clarification” by Jürgen Eichhoff, Monatshefte 85: 71–80 (1993).

Kennedy Speaks in Berlin

John F. Kennedy, West Berlin, June 26, 1963

In his 1993 article, Jürgen Eichhoff explains that Kennedy’s words (provided to him by a near-native speaker of German, Robert H. Lochner, by the way) were in fact grammatically correct. A rarely mentioned corollary of the rule about ein in front of professional terms and nationalities in German prescribes that if the subject of the sentence only has certain characteristics of the profession or nationality referred to, but is not really a student, American, Berliner, etc., then the ein is required. For example, Ronald McDonald would say in German Ich bin Clown. On the other hand, if someone is just acting silly, that person would have to say Ich bin ein Clown.

Thus President Kennedy did not misspeak, which explains why the myth developed only outside of Germany (see the serious images from German media on this page where JFK’s words were reprinted). But even if Kennedy had misspoken, Professor Eichhoff adds, native speakers of German would have understood precisely what he meant. And in somewhat of an ironic twist, the dialect word Berliner, referring to a pastry, is not even used in the city of Berlin, but farther west. Interestingly, it was introduced by nineteenth-century immigrants into the English of the Upper Midwest, as the Dictionary of American Regional English demonstrates.

Kennedy Berlin Visit Magazine

JFK with West Berlin Mayor Willy Brandt and Chancellor Konrad Adenauer

German-American Language Myths: German as the Official Language of the US

How the site works

Last Updated: October 27, 2010