The speaker is a 61-year-old White woman with a high school education from Raymond, Washington; she was recorded in 1967.
|Inf: Well, in the early days before the White men came, no doubt there were a great many thousands of Indians that populated this country. Very many are remnant tribes, living along the rivers and along, ???long the bay. Uh, we know that they were there by, um, uh, what has been left, uh, kitchen middens, the heaps of shells, and uh???
FW: I???m [Inf: They-] sorry, the kitchen what?
Inf: Middens. [FW: What?] Kiten-, kitchen middens. Well, uh, what, uh, what was thrown out, you might just say garbage heaps [FW: Mm-hmm], really. I mean, it???s what, just left, what was thrown away from the, from the longhouses [FW: Mm-hmm] and so forth. They were, um, when the White men came, they, they found, uh, s-special tribes. Uh, the main one was the, uh, Chinook tribe. And, uh, it, uh, it???s, uh, said that the chief of that tribe, Chief Comcomly, could go up on the hill, uh, by what is now Astoria, and, uh, where the, um, Astor Tower is, and he could look out over the country. And everything that he could see from there was his domain. And he could see way down the coast of Oregon, a very long ways. And he could, uh, see all the coast of what is now Washington. And a long, long ways up the Columbia River and the prairies and flatlands. And that was, uh, from there was, was his country.